This medium-sized deer has palmate antlers. Coats vary in colour, from black and caramel to the more common tawny and white-spotted coat. Does and young have short barks, while bucks emit a deep groan, especially in mating season. Not a truly native species, as they are thought to have been introduced by the Normans in the 10th century.
Red deer migrated to Britain from Europe 11,000 years ago, making them one of two of the country’s truly indigenous species. Since their arrival, populations have risen and fallen with the loss and creation of suitable habitat. One of the UK’s most adaptable mammals, red deer are currently expanding in both range and numbers – while preferring woodland and forest habitats in England and southern Scotland, their opportunism has led to their inhabitation of open moor and hills too.
This native British deer is rusty brown in the summer months, turning grey, pale brown or sometimes black in winter. The small antlers with three prongs on males are known as tines. Roe deer are easily startled – their rumps bounding through forests and crops are a familiar sight to walkers and cyclists. They became extinct in England in the 1800s due to forest clearance and over-hunting, though the species remained in parts of Scotland. These days, they are widespread and abundant.
Also known as Japanese deer, this medium-sized species arrived on Brownsea Island in Dorset in 1860. Escapees quickly spread through Britain, forming strongholds in much of Scotland. Like fallow deer, their coats vary from pale to dark, and they often have white rumps.
This small, hunched deer was brought over from China in the early 20th century, spreading from Bedfordshire to populate large swathes of England. Unlike other deer species, muntjac have little impact on agricultural and timber crops. They breed all year round and are able to have kids when they are seven months old.
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